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"Kings of Energetics" - by Joey Saavedra (San Antonio, TX).

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  • "Kings of Energetics" - by Joey Saavedra (San Antonio, TX).

    Kings of energetics

    By Joey Saavedra



    Introduction
    Deep within the cell’s domain
    Far minute to see
    Kings of energetics reign
    To fuel this life that be.

    Unlike the kings of times forgot
    Wrought they with strife and toil
    The tsars within at conflict not
    Need not the cell despoil.

    For in this land the kings call home
    Key are all who lead
    Each involved, though not alone
    As DNA decreed.

    The verve within compels these kings
    (And noble be their cause)
    To power many different things
    Commands of them few flaws.

    Each must rule in tandem
    Not all in equal measure
    Their actions far from random
    Exist they not for pleasure.

    When movement becomes essential
    Or as gradients are made
    Energy is thus potential
    For cell work to be conveyed.

    Very little is free, you see
    Less not thou live in pain
    Demand always the Kings – their fee
    For cell life to sustain.

    True- most of what goes on inside
    Though not the passive discourse
    Is evidently well supplied
    By an energy yielding source

    This source we know today as such
    We cannot understate
    For synthesis is needed much
    Adenosine Triphosphate

    A molar mass of five-oh-seven
    Grams per mole, indeed
    ATP – this gift from heaven
    Too large to store with greed.

    This ubiquitous ingredient
    Is thus made on demand
    Be this, yes, expedient
    Though tough to understand

    Such regal clout the Kings do wield
    And with little hesitation
    Yet naught be the triphosphate yield
    Without enzyme mediation

    And so we begin our journey thus
    Each pathway we shall chart
    With open mind and little fuss
    Let energetics start!


    Part 1 – The Immediate Energy System

    It so happens Adenosine Triphosphate
    Is small in stored summation
    And is enough to barely fuel a run
    Of three-seconds in duration.

    Thus, in order to resynthesize
    That for which we need
    The cell employs P.C.R
    To satisfy our greed.

    P.C.R – The cell’s first King
    A known temporal buffer
    Doth sacrifice a phosphate bond
    So triphosphate need not suffer.

    Short for Phosphocreatine
    And larger in supply
    A phosphate group is given such
    Diphosphate can’t deny.

    Occur this so within the cell
    The cytosol indeed
    So ATP kept constant to
    Drive seconds more of need

    Yet limited this king of ours
    Since finite be his might
    P.C.R reductions mean
    Others must join the fight

    And within the Glycolytic realm
    Another king doth reign
    Who is quick to act once is declared
    Triphosphate’s on the wane.


    Part 2 – Glycolysis

    And so the Glycolytic King
    With many an enzyme minion
    Takes charge of energetics now
    Still in cytosol dominion.

    He promotes the oxidation
    Of glucose in the cell
    And without the need for oxygen
    It’s a role he must excel

    He firstly ‘traps’ the glucose
    Adding phosphate to its main
    Pledging fate to Glycolysis
    For triphosphate to regain.

    From Glucose-6-phosphate
    To Pyruvate at the last
    Enzyme mediated guile
    Nine reactions – oh so fast!

    There are three for whom the king doth hold
    To account more than the rest
    These minions of glycolysis
    Must regulate by request

    The first be Hexokinase
    The second - P.F.K
    And the third adds phosphate to PEP
    King’s minions doth purvey

    An energy investment
    In the form of ATP
    Is the primer of a couple steps
    Those steps be one and three.

    Here, some work is needed
    To catalyze the change
    Of F.6.P and glucose
    A structure rearrange.

    Soon after this investment
    A repayment is conveyed
    With gross Phosphorylation
    Four triphosphates are re-made

    Hence there is a yield
    In net energy production
    Of two triphosphates in this path
    Of glycolysis seduction

    But more central to this story
    A task of emulation
    Is reduction of the co-enzymes
    Through dehydrogenation.

    To continue degradation
    Of the transformed glucose bonds
    G3P must oxidize
    And NAD responds.

    In doing so, this co-enzyme
    Can shuttle through its cargo
    Towards the mitochondria
    If Glycolysis be largo.

    Though if the glycolytic rate
    Exceeds the shuttle action
    Recycle must the NAD
    In LDH reaction.

    A consequence of exercise
    More so high intensity
    The LDH reaction
    Becomes the cell’s propensity

    But in the resting state we know
    The next king takes control
    And through the oxidative paths
    His rule we must extol.


    Part 3 – Aerobic Metabolism (The Krebs Cycle)


    Pyruvate sometimes has the chance
    Of Decarboxylation
    And with the help of carriers
    Makes haste in translocation

    From cytosol to powerhouse
    Pyruvate’s fate is sealed
    As PDH (in complex form)
    Has power now to wield.

    Coenzyme-A, thrown in the mix
    With loss of C.O.2
    What forms from this, indeed we know
    May oxidize straight through

    A.C.A combines with Ox
    That’s ‘Oxaloacetate’
    With Citrate Synth and H.2.O
    Determining the rate

    So, as we know Citrate is formed
    Which undergoes conversion
    In many steps defined by Krebs
    A mitochon’ excursion

    True, indeed, the realm before
    Re-synthesis took place
    So too, here, we see once more
    Triphosphate show its face

    The King of Krebs is granted much
    In terms of redox fee
    For coenzyme reduction
    Is four-fold guarantee

    Of these four dinucleotides
    One, we know, is Flavin based
    But all of them, now energized
    Shuttle from the Krebs with haste


    Part 4 – ETC


    Our final King possess great
    Skill and capability
    A sovereign oxidative star
    With dash and versatility

    This be so, indeed, because
    Chemiosmotic theory
    Shows how hard it is to keep
    The cell from feeling weary

    The king’s domain, the ETC
    (Electron Transport Chain)
    Can so be found attached to the
    Inner mito’ membrane

    The coenzymes are oxidized
    What of their precious load?
    Well, to the mito’ complexes
    Electrons are bestowed

    The first among our minions
    A dehydrogenase
    Accepts a pair of ‘lectrons
    And starts the enzyme craze.

    In doing so, this complex
    Pumps up into ‘the space’
    Some protons from the matrix
    With ‘fabulosos’ pace.

    Next in line – Coenzyme Q
    Or Co-Q-ten, if you prefer?
    Taketh from the first minion
    Electrons he can transfer.

    He passes on his cargo
    To he who next in line
    Is known by most as cytochrome
    Though B.C.1 is fine.

    A friend and close companion
    ‘C’ quickly lends a hand
    Another cytochrome, for sure
    Electrons still remand.

    And as, of course, was true before
    Hydrogens are moved
    Into the space where more are found
    The gradient improved.

    The final minion in this path
    A complex cytochrome
    Manufactures water from
    Electrons in his home

    Of course, he uses oxygen
    And hydrogens as well
    Essential be this Oxidaze
    For safety of the cell.

    The real magic is left to last
    Since here the cell surprises
    As ATP is born again
    Unreal how it arises!

    The proton concentration
    In ‘the space’ described before
    Is large, and so encourages
    Much movement through the door.

    We know this door as ‘Synthase’
    And its job is simply this:
    To add phosphate to ADP
    Through chemiosmotic kiss.

    The protons move from high to low
    And synthase helps it through
    And the energy that comes with it
    Sticks phosphate on like glue!

    Since all of this demands O.2
    Then it truly is a fact
    Re-synthesis of triphosphate
    Is an oxidative act.

    But what about the yield, you say?
    What of triphosphate dictum?
    Well, this amounts to thirty-six
    When Glucose is victim!

    And so our quest must come to end
    As any journey should
    The Kings of Energetics are
    True forces for the good.

    The cell would surely perish quick
    Life would be denied
    If ATP was hindered from
    Being well supplied.
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